(03_2013) - Reverse Engineering Tutorials

September 12, 2017 | Author: fitra | Category: Malware, Instruction Set, Computer Program, Subroutine, Source Code
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Reverse Engineering Tutorials...

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Editor’s Note

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Dear Hakin9 Readers,

team Editor in Chief: Ewelina Nazarczuk [email protected] Editorial Advisory Board: Webb, Marco Hermans, Gareth Watters, Peter Harmsen, Dhawal Desai, Sushil Verma, Bamidele Ajayi Proofreaders: Jeff Smith, Krzysztof Samborski Special Thanks to the Beta testers and Proofreaders who helped us with this issue. Without their assistance there would not be a Hakin9 magazine. Senior Consultant/Publisher: Paweł Marciniak CEO: Ewa Dudzic [email protected] Production Director: Andrzej Kuca [email protected] Art Director: Ireneusz Pogroszewski [email protected]

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would like to introduce a new issue of Hakin9 on Demand. This time we explore ins and outs of Reverse Engineering. It is the process of exploration products such as computer devices or software to analyze how it is working and how it is made at all, or try to make a new product working in the same way, but without duplication of the original. This time you will learn about basics of reverse engineering. Furthermore you will get knowledge how to use reverse engineering techniques on your own. You will find out how to analyze malware, or how to write your own debbuger. In this issue you will find sections as, Malware Reverse En-gineering and Reverse it Yourself. Enjoy your time with Hakin9! Regards, Ewelina Nazarczuk Hakin9 Magazine Junior Product Manager and Hakin9 Team

DTP: Ireneusz Pogroszewski Marketing Director: Ewelina Nazarczuk [email protected] Publisher: Hakin9 Media 02-682 Warszawa, ul. Bokserska 1 Phone: 1 917 338 3631 www.hakin9.org/en Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the high quality of the magazine, the editors make no warranty, express or implied, concerning the results of content usage. All trade marks presented in the magazine were used only for informative purposes. All rights to trade marks presented in the magazine are reserved by the companies which own them.

DISCLAIMER! The techniques described in our articles may only be used in private, local networks. The editors hold no responsibility for misuse of the presented techniques or consequent data loss.

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CONTENTS

contents MALWARE REVERSE ENGINEERING Malware Reverse Engineering: Zeus Trojan: Part 1

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By Bamidele Ajayi, OCP, MCTS, MCITP EA, CISA, CISM Reverse engineering is a vital skill for security professionals. Reverse engineering malware to discovering vulnerabilities in binaries are required in order to properly secure Information Systems from today’s ever evolving threats.

Android Reverse Engineering: An 10 Introductory Guide to Malware Analysis By Vicente Aguilera Diaz, CISA, CISSP, CSSLP, PCI ASV, ITIL Foundation, CEH|I, ECSP|I, OPSA,

The Android malware has followed an exponential growth rate in recent years, in parallel with the degree of penetration of this system in different markets. Currently, over 90% of the threats to mobile devices have Android as a main target. This scenario has led to the demand for professionals with a very specific knowledge on this platform.

REVERSE IT YOURSELF Write Your Own Debugger By Amr Thabet

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Do you want to write your own debugger? ... Do you have a new technology and see the already known products like OllyDbg or IDA Pro don’t have this technology? … Do you write plugins in OllyDbg and IDA Pro but you need to convert it into a separate application? … This article is for you.In this article, I’m going to teach you how to write a full functional debugger using the Security Research and Development Framework (SRDF) …

Reverse Engineering – Shellcodes Techniques

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By Eran Goldstein, CEH, CEI, CISO, Security+, MCSA, MCSE Security The concept of reverse engineering process is well known, yet in this article we are not about to discuss the technological principles of reverse engineering but rather focus on one of the core implementations of reverse engineering in the security arena. Throughout this article we’ll go over the shellcodes’ concept, the various types and the understanding of the analysis being performed by a “shellcode” for a software/program.

Deep Inside Malicious PDF

By Yehia Mamdouh, Founder and Instructor of Master Metasploit Courses, CEH, CCNA

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In nowadays People share documents all the time and most of the attacks based on client side attack and target applications that exist in the user, employee OS, from one single file the attacker can compromise a large network. PDF is the most sharing file format, due to PDFs can include active content, passed within the enterprise and across Networks. In this article we will make Analysis to catch Malicious PDF files.

How to Reverse Engineer dot NET Assemblies

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By Soufiane Tahiri, InfoSec Institute Contributor and Computer Security Researcher The concept of dot NET can be easily compared to the concept of JAVA and Java Virtual Machine, at least when talking about compilation. Unlike most of traditional programming languages like C/C++, application were developed using dot NET frameworks are compiled to a Common Intermediate Language (CIL or Microsoft Common Intermediate Language MSIL) – which can be compared to bytecode when talking about Java programs – instead of being compiled directly to the native machine executable code, the Dot Net Common Language Runtime (CLR) will translate the CIL to the machine code at runtime. This will definitely increase execution speed but has some advantages since every dot NET program will keep all classes’ names, functions’ names variables and routines’ names in the compiled program. And this, from a programmer’s point of view, is such a great thing since we can make different parts of a program using different programming languages available and supported by frameworks.

Reversing with Stack-Overflow and Exploitation

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By Bikash Dash, RHCSA, RHCE, CSSA

The prevalence of security holes in program and protocols, the increasing size and complexity of the internet, and the sensitivity of the information stored throughout have created a target-rich environment for our next generation advisory. The criminal element is applying advance technique to evade the software/tool security. So the Knowledge of Analysis is necessary. And that pin point is called “The Art Of Reverse Engineering”

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Malware Reverse Engineering: Zeus Trojan – Part1 In today’s highly sophisticated world in Technology, where Information Systems form the critical back-bone of our everyday lives, we need to protect them from all sorts of attack vectors.

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n today’s highly sophisticated world in Technology, where Information Systems form the critical back-bone of our everyday lives, we need to protect them from all sorts of attack vectors. Protecting them from all sorts of attack would require us understanding the modus operandi without which our efforts would be futile. Understanding the modi operandi of sophisticated attacks such as malware would require us dissecting malware codes into bits and pieces with processes such Reverse Engineering. In this article readers would be introduced Reverse Engineering, Malware Analysis, Understanding attack vectors from reversed codes, tools and utilities used for reverse engineering.

Introduction

Reverse engineering is a vital skill for security professionals. Reverse engineering malware to discovering vulnerabilities in binaries are required in order to properly secure Information Systems from today’s ever evolving threats. Reverse Engineering can be defined as “Per Wikipedia’s definition: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Reverse_engineering:Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, object or system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. It often involves taking something (e.g., a mechanical device, electronic component, biological, chemical or organic matter or software program) apart and analyzing its workings in detail to be used in maintenance, or to try to make a new device or program that does the same thing without using or simply duplicating (without understanding) the original. Reverse engi-

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neering has its origins in the analysis of hardware for commercial or military advantage. The purpose is to deduce design decisions from end products with little or no additional knowledge about the procedures involved in the original production. The same techniques are subsequently being researched for application to legacy software systems, not for industrial or defense ends, but rather to replace incorrect, incomplete, or otherwise unavailable documentation.” Assembly language is a low-level programming language used to interface with computer hardware. It uses structured commands as substitutions for numbers allowing humans to read the code easier than looking at binary, though it is easier to read than binary, assembly language is a difficult language and comes in handy as a skill set for effective reverse engineering. For this purpose, we will delve into the basics of assembly language;

Registers

Register is a small amount of storage available on processors which provides the fastest access data. Registers can be categorized on the following basis: • User-accessible registers – The most common division of user-accessible registers is into data registers and address registers. • Data registers can hold numeric values such as integer and floating-point values, as well as characters, small bit arrays and other data. In some older and low end CPUs, a special data register, known as the accumulator, is used implicitly for many operations.

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• Address registers hold addresses and are used by instructions that indirectly access primary memory. Some processors contain registers that may only be used to hold an address or only to hold numeric values (in some cases used as an index register whose value is added as an offset from some address); others allow registers to hold either kind of quantity. A wide variety of possible addressing modes, used to specify the effective address of an operand, exist. The stack pointer is used to manage the run-time stack. Rarely, other data stacks are addressed by dedicated address registers, see stack machine. • Conditional registers hold truth values often used to determine whether some instruction should or should not be executed. • General purpose registers (GPRs) can store both data and addresses, i.e., they are combined Data/Address registers and rarely the register file is unified to include floating point as well. • Floating point registers (FPRs) store floating point numbers in many architectures. • Constant registers hold read-only values such as zero, one, or pi. • Vector registers hold data for vector processing done by SIMD instructions (Single Instruction, Multiple Data). • Special purpose registers (SPRs) hold program state; they usually include the program counter (aka instruction pointer) and status register (aka processor status word). The aforementioned stack pointer is sometimes also included in this group. Embedded microprocessors can also have registers corresponding to specialized hardware elements. • Instruction registers store the instruction currently being executed. In some architectures, model-specific registers (also called machinespecific registers) store data and settings related to the processor itself. Because their meanings are attached to the design of a specific processor, they cannot be expected to remain standard between processor generations. • Control and status registers – There are three types: program counter, instruction registers and program status word (PSW).

the stack and registers for use within the function. Similarly, the function conclusion appears at the end of the function, and restores the stack and registers to the state they were in before the function was called.

Memory Stacks

There are 3 main sections of memory: • Stack Section – Where the stack is located, stores local variables and function arguments. • Data Section – Where the heap is located, stores static and dynamic variables. • Code Section – Where the actual program instructions are located. The stack section starts at the high memory addresses and grows downwards, towards the lower memory addresses; conversely, the data section (heap) starts at the lower memory addresses and grows upwards, towards the high memory addresses. Therefore, the stack and the heap grow towards each other as more variables are placed in each of those sections

Debuggers

Are computers programs used forlocating and fixing or bypassing bugs (errors) in computer program code or the engineering of a hardware device. They also offer functions such as running a program step by step, stopping at some specified instructions and tracking values of variables and also have the ability to modify program state during execution. some examples of debuggers are: • • • • • •

GNU Debugger Intel Debugger LLDB Microsoft Visual Studio Debugger Valgrind WinDbg

Hex Editors

Registers related to fetching information from RAM, a collection of storage registers located on separate chips from the CPU (unlike most of the above, these are generally not architectural registers).

Hex editors are tools used to view and edit binary files. A binary file is a file that contains data in machine-readable form as opposed to a text file which can be read by a human. Hex editors allow editing the raw data contents of a file, instead of other programs which attempt to interpret the data for you. Since a hex editor is used to edit binary files, they are sometimes called a binary editor or a binary file editor.

Functions

Disassemblers

Assembly Language function starts a few lines of code at the beginning of a function, which prepare

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Disassemblers are computer programs that translate machine languages into assembly language,

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whilst the opposite for the operation is called an assembly. The outputs of Disassemblers are in human readable format. Some examples are:

as PE, Disassemblers, Debuggers, etc would also be required to effectively reverse malwares.

• IDA • OllyDbg

This is a set of programs which is designed to setup a botnet over networked infrastructure. It aims to make machines agents with the mission of stealing financial records. Zeus has the ability to log inputs entered user as well as to capture and manipulate data that are displayed on web forms.

Malware is the Swiss-army knife used by cybercriminals and any other adversary against corporation or organizations’ Information Systems. In these evolving times, detecting and removing malware artifacts is not enough: it’s vitally important to understand how they work and what they would do/did on your systems when deployed and understand the context, the motivations and the goals of a breach. Malware analysis is accomplished using specific tools that are categorized as hex editors, disassemblers/debuggers, decompiles and monitoring tools. Disassemblers/debuggers occupy important position in the list of reverse engineering tools. A disassembler converts binary code into assembly code. Disassemblers also extract strings, used libraries, and imported and exported functions. Debuggers expand the functionality of disassemblers by supporting the viewing of the stack, the CPU registers, and the hex dumping of the program as it executes. Debuggers allow breakpoints to be set and the assembly code to be edited at runtime.

Background

Zeus is a malware toolkit that allows a cybercriminal to build his own Trojan horse for the sole purpose of stealing financial details. Once Zeus Trojan infects a machine, it remains idle until the user visits a Web page with a form to fill out. It allows criminals to add fields to forms at the browser level. This means that instead of directing the end user to a counterfeit website, the user would see the legitimate website but might be asked to fill in an additional blank with specific information for “security reasons.” The malware can be customized to gather credentials from banks in specific geographic areas and can be distributed in many different ways, including email attachments and malicious Web links. Once infected, a PC can be recruited to become part of a botnet.

Approach

For reverse engineering malware a controlled environment is suggested to avoid sprawling of malicious content or using a virtual network that is completely enclosed within the host machine to prevent communication with the outside world. Tools such

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Zeus Crimeware Toolkit

Architecture

The structure of Zeus crimeware toolkit is made up of five components namely; • A control panel which contains a set of PHP scripts that are used to monitor the botnet and collect the stolen information into MySQL database and then display it to the botmaster. It also allows the botmaster to monitor,control, and manage bots that are registered within the botnet. • Configuration files that are used to customize the botnet parameters. It involves two files: the configuration file config.txt that lists the basic information, and the web injects file webinjects. txt that identifies the targeted websites and defines the content injection rules. • A generated encrypted configuration file config.bin, which holds an encrypted version of the configuration parameters of the botnet. • A generated malware binary file bot.exe, which is considered as the bot binary file that infects the victims’ machines. • A builder program that generate two files: the encrypted configuration file config.bin and the malware (actual bot) binary file bot.exe. On the Command&Control side, the crimeware toolkit has an easy way to setup the Command&Control server through an installation script that configures the database and the control panel. The database is used to store related information about the botnet and any updated reports from the bots. These updates contain stolen information that are gathered by the bots from the infected machines. The control panel provides a user friendly interface to display the content of the database as well as to communicate with the rest of the botnet using PHP scripts. The botnet configuration information is composed of two parts: a static part and a dynamic part. In addition, each Zeus instance keeps a set of targeted URLs that are fed by the web injects file webinject.txt. Instantly, Zeus targets these URLs to steal information and to modify the content of specific web pages

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before they get displayed on the user‘s screen. The attacker can define rules that are used to harvest a web form data. When a victim visits a targeted site, the bot steals the credentials that are entered by the victim. Afterward, it posts the encrypted information to a drop location that is meant to store the bot update reports. This server decrypts the stolen information and stores it into a database.

Code Analysis

The builder is part of the component in the crimeware toolkit which uses the configuration files as input to obfuscated configuration and the bot binary file. The configuration File: It converts the clear text of the configuration files to a pre-defined format and encrypts the it with RC4 encryption algorithm using the configured encryption key. Zeus Configuration file includes some cammands namely: • url_loader: Update location of the bot • url_server: Command and control server location • AdvancedConfigs: Alternate URL locations for updated configuration files • Webfilters: Web filters specify a list of URLs (with masks) that should be monitored. Any data sent to these URLs such as online banking credentials is then sent to the command and control server. This data is captured on the client prior to SSL. In addition, one can specify to take a screenshot when the left-button of the mouse is clicked, which is useful in recording PIN numbers selected on virtual keyboards. • WebDataFilters: Web data filters specify a list of URLs (with masks) and also string patterns in the data that must be matched. Any data sent to these URLs and match the specified string patterns such as ‘password’ or ‘login’ is then sent to the command and control server. This data is also captured on the client prior to SSL. • WebFakes: Redirect the specified URL to a different URL, which will host a potentially fake version of the page. • TANGrabber: The TAN (Transaction Authentication Number) grabber routine is a specialized routine that allows you to configure match patterns to search for transaction numbers in data posted to online banks. The match patterns include values such as the variable name and length of the TAN. • DNSMap: Entries to be added to the HOSTS file often used to prevent access to security sites or redirect users to fake Web sites.

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References •

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http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/Zeus-Trojan-Zbot http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_engineering http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeus_(Trojan_horse) http://github.com/Visgean/Zeus http://www.ncfta.ca/papers/On_the_Analysis_of_the_ Zeus_Botnet_Crimeware.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Processor_register http://www.cs.fsu.edu

• file_webinjects: The name of the configuration file that specifies HTML to inject into online banking pages, which defeats enhanced security implemented by online banks and is used to gather information not normally requested by the banks. This functionality is discussed more in-depth in the section “Web Page Injection”.

Conclusion

The ZEUS trojan captures your keystrokes and implements ‘form grabbing’ (taking the contents of a form before submission and uploading them to the attacker) in an effort to steal sensitive information (passwords, credit cards, social securities, etc.). It has capabilities to infect Windows and several mobile platforms, though a recent variant based on ZUES’s leaked source, the Blackhole exploit kit, can infect Macs as well. Zeus is predominantly a financial-interest malware, however if infected, your machine will be recruited into one of the largest botnets ever. The master could then use your computer (along with any other infected machines of that bot) to be used to do any number of nefarious tasks for him (launching DDOS attacks, sending spam, relays, etc.).

Part 2 (Continued in Next Article)

This would be focused on creating the bot.exe and using tools like IDA Pro and ollydbg to reverse and show the inner workings from the binary files.

bamidele Ajayi

Bamidele Ajayi (OCP, MCTS, MCITP EA, CISA, CISM ) is an Enterprise Systems Engineer experienced in planning, designing, implementing and administering LINUX and WINDOWS based systems, HA cluster Databases and Systems, SAN and Enterprise Storage Solutions. Incisive and highly dynamic Information Systems Security Personnel with vast security architecture technical experience devising, integrating and successfully developing security solutions across multiple resources, services and products.

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Android Reverse Engineering: an introductory guide to malware analysis The Android malware has followed an exponential growth rate in recent years, in parallel with the degree of penetration of this system in different markets. Currently, over 90% of the threats to mobile devices have Android as a main target. This scenario has led to the demand for professionals with a very specific knowledge on this platform.

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he software reverse engineering, according to Chikofsky and Cross [1], refers to the process of analyzing a system to identify its components and their interrelationships, and create representations of the system in another form or a higher level of abstraction. Thus, the purpose of reverse engineering is not to make changes or to replicate the system under analysis, but to understand how it was built. The best way to tackle a problem of reverse engineering is to consider how we would have built the system in question. Obviously, the success of the mission depends largely on the level of experience we have in building similar systems to the analyzed system. Moreover, knowledge of the right tools we will help in this process. In this article we describe tools and techniques that will allow us, through a reverse engineering process, identify malware in Android applications. To execute the process of reverse engineering over an application, we can use two types of techniques: static analysis and / or dynamic analysis. Both techniques are complementary, and the use of both provides a more complete and efficient vision on the application being discussed. In this article we focus only on static analysis phase, ie, we will focus on the analysis of the application by analyzing its source code, and without actually running the application. Static analysis of Android application starts from the moment you have your APK file (Application PacKage). APK is the extension used to distribute and install applications for the Android platform. The APK format is similar to the JAR (Java AR-

chive) format and contains the packaged files required by the application. If we unzip an APK file (for example, an APK corresponding to the application “Iron Man 3 Live Wallpaper” available at Play Store: http:// play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=cellfish. ironman3wp&hl=en): $ unzip cellfish.ironman3wp.apk

typically we will find the following resources: Figure 1. An interesting resource is the “AndroidManifest. xml” file. In this XML file, all specifications of our application are declared, including Activities, Intents, Hardware, Services, Permissions required by the application [2], etc. Note that this is a binary XML

Figure 1. Typical Structure of an APK File

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file, so if you want to read easily its contents you should convert it to a human-readable XML format. The “AXMLPrinter2.jar” tool performs this task:

$ java –jar AXMLPrinter2.jar AndroidManifest.xml > AndroidManifest.xml.txt $ less AndroidManifest.xml.txt

Another important resource that we find in any APK is the “classes.dex” file. This is a formatted DEX (Dalvik EXecutable) file containing the bytecodes that understands the DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine). Dalvik is the virtual machine that runs applications and code written in Java, created specifically for the Android platform. Since we want to analyze the source code of the application, we need to convert the DEX format to Java source code. To do this we will pass through an intermediate state. We will convert the DEX format to the compiled Java code (.class). Many tools exist for this purpose. One of the most used is “dex2jar”. This tool takes as input the APK file and generates a JAR file as output:

• The strings are not encrypted • The code associated with logging functionality are not removed • Does not exist encrypted files in the /assets resource • There are no classes that have been entirety encrypted Once we have access to source code, we can try to better understand how the application is built. “JD-GUI” allows us to save the entire application source code in a ZIP file, so you can perform new operations on this code using other tools. For example, to search for key terms on the entire code using the “grep” utility from the command line.

$ /vad/tools/dex2jar/d2j-dex2jar.sh cellfish. ironman3wp.apk dex2jar cellfish.ironman3wp.apk -> cellfish. ironman3wp-dex2jar.jar

Now we only need to decompile the Java classes to get the source code. To do this, we can use the “JD-GUI” tool (Figure 3): $ /vad/tools/jd-gui/jdgui cellfish.ironman3wpdex2jar.jar

One of the first observations we draw from decompile the Java code in our example, is the fact that it has been used some code obfuscation tool that complicates the process of analyzing the application. The most common tools are “ProGuard” [3] and “DexGuard” [4]. Although these tools are commonly used to provide an additional layer of security and hinder the reverse engineering process, these applications can also be used in order to optimize the code and get a APK of a smaller size (eg, optimizing the bytecode eliminating unused instructions, renaming the class name, fields, and methods using short meaningless names, etc..). In our example, we can deduce that the developers have used “ProGuard” (open source tool) because we can observe that some of the features offered by “DexGuard” are not been implemented in the analyzed code:

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Figure 2. Contents of an AndroidManifest.xml File

Figure 3. Viewing the Source Code Decompiled with JD-GUI

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Although “JD-GUI” allows us to browse the entire hierarchy of objects in a comfortable manner, we generally find applications where there is a large number of Java classes to analyze, so we need to rely on other tools to facilitate the understanding of the code . Following the aim that defined Chikofsky and Cross in reverse engineering, which is none other than that of understanding how the application is built, there is a tool that will help us greatly in this regard: “Understand”. According to the website itself, “Understand” is a static analysis tool for maintaining, measuring and analyzing critical or large code bases. Although is not purely a security tool (do not expect to use it as a vulnerability scanner), it helps us to understand the application code, which is our goal (Figure 4). There are several online tools that have a similar purpose. For example, “Dexter” gives us detailed information about the application we want to analyze. As with any online service, our analysis is exposed to third party who can get to make use of our work, so we should always keep this in mind. With the “Dexter” tool, is a simple as registering, create a project and upload the APK that we want to analyze. After the analysis, we can view information such as the following:

Figure 4. Understand Showing the UML Class Diagram of the Application

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Package dependency graph List of classes List of strings used by the application Defined permissions and used permissions Activities, Services, Broadcast Receivers, Content Providers • Statistical data (percentage of obfuscated packages, use of internal versus external packages, classes per package, etc.). Possibly, the power of this tool lies in its ease of use (all actions are performed through the browser) and navigating the class diagram and application objects (Figure 5).

Malware Identification in the Play Store

It’s not a secret that Google’s official store (the Play Store, which we have received an update in late April this year), hosts malware. Now, how do we identify those malicious applications? How do we know what they are really doing? Let us then how to answer these questions. The techniques for introducing malware on a mobile application can be summarized in the following: • Exploit any vulnerability in the web server hosting the official store (typically, for example, taking advantage of a XSS vulnerability) • Enter malware in an application available at the official store (most users trust it and can be downloaded by a large number of potential users) • Install not malicious applications that at some point installs malware (eg, include additional levels with malware into a widespread game) • Use alternatives to official stores to post applications containing malware (usually, offering free applications that are not free in the official store) When we talk about to introduce malware into an application, we can refer to two different scenarios: • The published application contains code that exploits a vulnerability in the device, or • The published application does not exploit any vulnerability, but contains code that can perform malicious actions and, therefore, the user is warned of the permissions required by the application as a step prior to installation.

Figure 5. Initial View of an Application Analysis with Dexter

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In this article we focus on the second case: application with malicious code that exploits the user’s trust.

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How to Identify Malicious Applications on the Play Store?

A malicious application includes code that performs some action not expected by the user. For example, if a user downloads from the official store an application to change the wallpaper of his device, the user do not expect that this app can read his emails, can make phone calls or send SMS messages to premium accounts, for example. A tool that allows us to quickly assess the existence of malicious code is “VirusTotal” [5]. For example, if we use the service offered by “VirusTotal” to analyze the APK of the “Wallpaper & Background Browser” application of the “Start-App” company, and available in the Play Store (http://play.google. com/store/apps/details?id=com.startapp.wallpaper.browser), we note that 12 of the 46 supported antivirus by this service, detect malicious code in the application. Exactly, the following: • AhnLab-V3. Result: Android-PUP/Plankton • AVG. Result: Android/Plankton • Commtouch. Result: AndroidOS/Plankton.A.gen! Eldorado • Comodo. Result: UnclassifiedMalware • DrWeb. Result: Adware.Startapp.5.origin • ESET-NOD32. Result: a variant of Android/ Plankton.I • F-Prot. Result: AndroidOS/Plankton.D • F-Secure. Result: Application:Android/Counterclank • Fortinet. Result: Android/Plankton.A!tr • Sophos. Result: Andr/NewyearL-B • TrendMicro-HouseCall. Result: TROJ_GEN. F47V0830 • VIPRE. Result: Trojan.AndroidOS.Generic.A (Figure 6) Here’s another example. If we search at the Play Store the “Cool Live Wallpaper” application (http:// play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ownskin.diy _01zti0rso7rb), developed by “Brankhox”, we find the following information:

android.permission.READ_SMS android.permission.READ_CONTACTS com.google.android.gm.permission.READ_GMAIL android.permission.GET_ACCOUNTS android.permission.ACCESS_WIFI_STATE

Potential malicious activities • The application has the ability to read text messages (SMS or MMS) • The application has the ability to read mail from Gmail • The application has the ability to access user contacts The questions we must ask is why and for what purpose the application need these permissions, like reading my email or access my contacts? It’s really so intrusive as it sounds? We will use some of the tools described above, to reverse engineer this application and see if it is using some of the more sensitive permissions that it requests.

Step 1: Get the APK file of the application There are multiple ways to obtain an APK:

• Downloading an unofficial APK • Google: we can use the Google search engine to locate the APK. • Unofficial repositories: we can find the APK in several alternative markets [6] or other repositories like 4shared.com, apkboys.com, apkmania.co, aplicacionesapk.com, aptoide. com, flipkart.asia, etc. • Downloading an official APK • Real APK Leecher [7]: This tool allows us to download the official APK for some applications. • SaveAPK [8]: This tool (required to have previously installed the „OI File Manager”

Package com.ownskin.diy_01zti0rso7rb

Permissions android.permission.INTERNET android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE

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Figure 6. Result of a VirusTotal Analysis on an APK

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application) available on the Play Store, lets us generate the APK if we have previously installed application on the device. • Astro File Manager [9]: This tool is available in the Play Store, and we can get the APK if we have previously installed the application on the device. When performing a backup of the application, the APK is stored in the directory that is defined for backup. Given the risk involved in dealing with malware, if we choose the option to download the APK existing in the Play Store from a previous installation of the application, we should use preferably an emulator [10] or a device of our test lab (Figure 7).

Step 2: Convert the application from the Dalvik Executable format (.dex) to Java classes (.class)

The idea is to have the application code into a human-readable format. In this case, we use the “dex2jar” tool to convert the format Android to the Java format: $ /vad/tools/d2j-dex2jar.sh com.ownskin. diy_01zti0rso7rb.apk dex2jar com.ownskin.diy_01zti0rso7rb.apk -> com.ownskin.diy_01zti0rso7rb-dex2jar.jar

Step 3: Decompile the Java code

Using a Java decompiler (like “JD-GUI”), we can obtain the Java source code from the .class files. In our case, we will choose a fast track. “JD-GUI” allows us to save the entire application source code in a ZIP file. We’ll keep this file as “com.ownskin.diy_01zti0rso7rb-dex2jar.src.zip”, and unzip it to perform a manual scan. We note that there are 353 Java source files: $ find /vad/lab/Android/com.ownskin.diy_01zti0r so7rb-dex2jar.src/ -type f | wc -l 353

Step 4: Find malicious code in the application

Figure 7. Downloading an APK with APK Real Leecher

We can now search in any resource of the application to identify strings that may be susceptible of being used for malicious purposes. For example, we have previously identified that this application sought permission to read SMS messages.

Listing 1. Finding Malicious Code in the Application $ cd /vad/lab/Android/com.ownskin.diy_01zti0rso7rb-dex2jar.src/ $ grep -i sms -r * com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java:import android.telephony.SmsMessage; com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java: SmsMessage[] arrayOfSmsMessage = new SmsMessage[arrayOfObject.length]; com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java: arrayOfSmsMessage[0] = SmsMessage.createFromPdu((byte[]) arrayOfObject[0]); com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java: hs.a(this.a, arrayOfSmsMessage[0].getOriginatingAddress()); com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java: hs.c(this.a, arrayOfSmsMessage[0].getMessageBody()); com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hm.java: if (!”SMS_MMS”.equalsIgnoreCase(this.U)) com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hm.java: a(Uri.parse(“content://sms”)); com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hs.java: Uri localUri = Uri.parse(“content://sms”); com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hs.java: this.P.l().registerReceiver(this.ac, new IntentFilter(“android.provider.Telephony.SMS_RECEIVED”));

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Let’s see if the application actually use this permission (Listing 1). Using the “grep” command, we identified that the following resources (Java classes) seem to contain some code that allows read access to the user’s SMS:

static { Uri localUri = Uri.parse(“content://sms”); }

• com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hm.java • com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hs.java • com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java

…this.P.l().registerReceiver(this.ac,new IntentFilter(“android.provider. Telephony.SMS_RECEIVED”));

Let’s see the source code detail of these resources in JD-GUI:

…• com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/ht.java This class implements a Broadcast Receiver. This is simply an Android component that allows the registered Receiver to be notified of events produced in the system or in the application itself.

• com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hm.java … if (!”SMS_MMS”.equalsIgnoreCase(this.U)) break label89; a(Uri.parse(“content://sms”)); a(Uri.parse(“content://mms”)); …

• com/ownskin/diy_01zti0rso7rb/hs.java It creates a „localUri” object of the “Uri” class, calling the “parse” method to be used in the query to the Content Provider that allows to access to the SMS inbox: … public static final Uri a = localUri; public static final Uri b = Uri. withAppendedPath(localUri, “inbox”); …

and registers a Receiver to be notified of the received SMS:

In this case, the implemented Receiver is capable of receiving input SMS messages. And this notification occurs before that the internal SMS management application receive the SMS messages. This scenario is used by some malware, for example, to perform some action and then delete the received message before it is processed by the messaging application and be detected by the user. In this example, when the user receives an SMS, the application identify its source and read the message, as shown in the following code: Listing 2. As we can see (at this point, we can complete the process of analysis of the application by a dynamic analysis of it), in fact, the application accesses our SMS messages. However, it’s im-

Listing 2. When the User Receives an SMS, the Application Identify its Source and Read the Message … public final void onReceive(Context paramContext, Intent paramIntent) { Object[] arrayOfObject = (Object[])paramIntent.getExtras().get(“pdus”); SmsMessage[] arrayOfSmsMessage = new SmsMessage[arrayOfObject.length]; if (arrayOfObject.length > 0) { arrayOfSmsMessage[0] = SmsMessage.createFromPdu((byte[])arrayOfObject[0]); hs.a(this.a, arrayOfSmsMessage[0].getOriginatingAddress()); hs.b(this.a, go.a(this.a.P.l(), hs.a(this.a))); if ((hs.b(this.a) == null) || (hs.b(this.a).length() == 0)) hs.b(this.a, hs.a(this.a)); hs.c(this.a, arrayOfSmsMessage[0].getMessageBody()); hs.c(this.a); } } …

www.hakin9.org/en

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MALWARE REVERSE ENGiNEERiNG

Table 1. Static Analysis Tools for Android Applications TOOL

DESCRIPTION

Dexter

Static android application analysis tool

http://dexter.bluebox.com/

Androguard

Analysis tool (.dex, .apk, .xml, .arsc)

http://code.google.com/p/androguard/

smali/baksmali

Assembler/disassembler (dex format)

http://code.google.com/p/smali/

apktool

Decode/rebuild resources

http://code.google.com/p/android-apktool/

JD-GUI

Java decompiler

http://java.decompiler.free.fr/?q=jdgui

Dedexer

Disassembler tool for DEX files

http://dedexer.sourceforge.net/

AXMLPrinter2.jar

Prints XML document from binary XML

http://code.google.com/p/android4me/

dex2jar

Analysis tool (.dex and .class files)

http://code.google.com/p/dex2jar/

apkinspector

Analysis functions

http://code.google.com/p/apkinspector/

Understand

Source code analysis and metrics

http://www.scitools.com/

Agnitio

Security code review

http://sourceforge.net/projects/agnitiotool/

References

[1] “Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery: A Taxonomy”. Elliot J. Chikofsky, James H. Cross. http://win.ua.ac.be/~lore/Research/Chikofsky1990-Taxonomy.pdf [2] “Security features provided by Android” http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/permissions.html [3] ProGuard Tool http://developer.android.com/tools/help/proguard.html [4] DexGuard Tool http://www.saikoa.com/dexguard [5] VirusTotal http://www.virustotal.com [7] Alternative markets to the Play Store http://alternativeto.net/software/android-market/ [8] Real APK Leecher http://code.google.com/p/real-apk-leecher/ [9] SaveAPK http://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.mariotaku.saveapk&hl=en [10] Astro File Manager http://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.metago.astro&hl=en [11] “Using the Android Emulator” http://developer.android.com/tools/devices/emulator.html

portant to recall that we have accepted that the application can perform these actions, because we have accepted the permissions required and the application has informed to us of this situation prior to installation. Similarly, we can verify as any application makes use of the various permits requested, with particular attention to those that may affect our privacy or which may result in a cost to us. Some people sees no malware in this type of applications that take advantage of user trust, and has been the subject of controversy on more than one occasion. In any case, Google has decided to remove applications from the Play Store that can make an abuse of permits that these require to be confirmed by users who wish to use them. That does not mean, on the other hand, that there still exist such applications in Google’s official store (Table 1).

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URL

Vicente Aguilera Diaz

With over 10 years of professional experience in the security sector, Vicente Aguilera Diaz is co-founder of Internet Security Auditors (a Spanish firm specializing in security services), OWASP Spain Chapter Leader, member of the Technical Advisory Board of the RedSeguridad magazine, and member of the Jury of the IT Security Awards organized by the RedSeguridad magazine. Vicente has collaborate in several open-source projects, is a regular speaker at industry conferences and has published several articles and vulnerabilities in specialized media. Vicente has the following certifications: CISA, CISSP, CSSLP, PCI ASV, ITIL Foundation, CEH|I, ECSP|I, OPSA and OPST.

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REVERSE IT YOURSELF

Write your own Debugger Do you want to write your own debugger? ... Do you have a new technology and see the already known products like OllyDbg or IDA Pro don’t have this technology? … Do you write plugins in OllyDbg and IDA Pro but you need to convert it into a separate application? … This article is for you.

I

n this article, I’m going to teach you how to write a full functional debugger using the Security Research and Development Framework (SRDF) … how to disassemble instructions, gather Process Information and work with PE Files … and how to set breakpoints and work with your debugger.

Why Debugging?

Debugging is usually used to detect application bugs and traces its execution … and also, it’s used in reverse engineering and analyzing application when you don’t have the source code of this application. Reverse engineering is used mainly for detecting vulnerabilities, analyzing malware or cracking applications. We will not discuss in this article how to use the debugger for these goals … but we will describe how to write your debugger using SRDF… and how you can implement your ideas based on it.

Security Research and Development Framework

This is a free open source Development Framework created to support writing security tools and malware analysis tools. And to convert the security researches and ideas from the theoretical approach to the practical implementation. This development framework created mainly to support the malware field to create malware analysis tools and anti-virus tools easily without reinventing the wheel and inspire the innovative minds to write their researches on this field and implement them using SRDF. In User-Mode part, SRDF gives you many helpful tools … and they are:

18

• • • • • • • • •

Assembler and Disassembler x86 Emulator Debugger PE Analyzer Process Analyzer (Loaded DLLs, Memory Maps … etc) MD5, SSDeep and Wildlist Scanner (YARA) API Hooker and Process Injection Backend Database, XML Serializer And many more

In the Kernel-Mode part, it tries to make it easy to write your own filter device driver (not with WDF and callbacks) and gives an easy, object oriented (as much as we can) development framework with these features: • Object-oriented and easy to use development framework • Easy IRP dispatching mechanism • SSDT Hooker • Layered Devices Filtering • TDI Firewall • File and Registry Manager • Kernel Mode easy to use internet sockets • Filesystem Filter Still the Kernel-Mode in progress and many features will be added in the near future.

Gather Information About Process

If you decided to debug a running application or you start an application for debugging. You need

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to gather information about this process that you want to debug like: • Allocated Memory Regions inside the process • The Application place in its memory and the size of the application in memory • Loaded DLLs inside the application’s memory • Read a specific place in memory • Also, if you need to attach to a process already running … you will also need to know the Process Filename and the commandline of this application

Begin the Process Analysis

To gather the information about a process in the memory, you should create an object of cProcess class given the ProcessId of the process that you need to analyze. cProcess

myProc(792);

If you only have the process name and don’t have the process id, you can get the process Id from the ProcessScanner in SRDF like this: cProcessScanner ProcScan;

And then get the hash of process names and Ids from ProcessList field inside the cProcessSanner Class … and this item is an object of cHash class. cHash class is a class created to represent a hash from key and value … the relation between them are one-to-many … so each key could have many values. In our case, the key is the process name and the value is the process id. You could see more than one process with the same name running on your system. To get the first ProcessId for a process “Explorer.exe” for example … you will do this:

the following code, we will see how to get the list of Memory Regions using cList Functions (Listing 1). The struct MEMORY _ MAP describes a memory region inside a process … and it’s: struct MEMORY_MAP { DWORD Address; DWORD Size; DWORD Protection; };

In the previous code, we loops on the items of MemoryMap List and we get every memory region’s address and size.

Getting the Application Information

To get the application place in memory … you will simply get the Imagebase and SizeOfImage fields inside cProcess class like this: As you see, we get the most important information about the process and its place in memory (Imagebase) and the size of it in memory (SizeOfImage). Listing 1. How to Get the List of Memory Regions Using cList Functions for(int i=0; iMemoryMap.GetNumberOfItems()) ;i++) { cout
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